How does a PCB work?

How does a PCB work?


Printed circuit boards are integral to the functionality of any electronic product. They mechanically support the product while connecting its electrical components. First of all, let's understand what is PCB?

Circuit boards are integral to the functionality of any electronic product. They mechanically support the product while connecting its electrical components. First of all, let's understand what is PCB?

What is PCB?

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the basic building blocks of most modern electronic devices. Whether it's a simple single-layer board used in a garage door opener, a six-layer board in a smartwatch, or a 60-layer, very high-density and high-speed circuit board used in supercomputers and servers, printed circuit boards are all other electronics. Components are assembled on the basis.

Semiconductors, connectors, resistors, diodes, capacitors, and radios are mounted on a PCB and "talk" to each other.

The mechanical and electrical properties of PCBs make them ideal for these applications. About 90% of PCBs manufactured today are rigid boards. Some PCBs are flexible, allowing the circuit to be bent and folded into shape, or sometimes they are used where the flex circuit can withstand hundreds of thousands of bending cycles without the circuit breaking anything. These flexible PCBs account for about 10% of the market. A small subset of these types of circuits is called rigid-flex circuits, where a portion of the circuit board is rigid, making it ideal for mounting and connecting components.

Unlike the technologies above, a rapidly emerging PCB technology is called Printed Electronics - often very simple, very low-cost circuits that reduce the cost of electronic packaging to the point where electronic solutions can be developed to solve previously unconsidered solutions. question. They are commonly used in electronics for wearable applications or disposable electronics.

A traditional PCB can be as simple as a single-layer circuit, or it can reach 50 layers or more. They consist of electrical components and connectors connected by conductive circuits for the purpose of routing electrical signals and power within and between devices.

PCBs were developed in the early 20th century, but the technology has been continuously upgraded since then. The advancement and widespread adoption of PCB technology has paralleled the rapid development of semiconductor packaging technology and have enabled industry professionals to invest in smaller, more efficient electronics.

How do they work?

A PCB consists of a variety of different electrical components, produced during the manufacturing process, each critical to the functionality of the device to which it belongs. 

A standard PCB in its most basic form is a plastic board covered with fiberglass. Components are mounted on a non-conductive board and connected by small paths called traces. These traces allow electrical components across the board to function by energizing them. The PCB also has small holes, drilled where each component needs to be placed.

A circuit board (if single-sided) has a layer of copper, a conductive material, on one side and the other side of the board, which is used to integrate different electronic components on the board.
Double-sided PCBs can mount conductive copper and components on both sides of the board instead of just one, which allows for tighter routing as they can use vias to alternate between the top and bottom layers. This is useful in many electronics, as circuits on one side of the board can be connected to the other side with the help of drilled holes in the board. 


The components themselves on each individual board are critical to making those boards work and pass electricity or energy. There are many different components that work together to ensure their function, such as resistors, transistors, and capacitors.

Resistors are one of the most important components to make a circuit board work because they carry current to generate voltage and dissipate electrical energy as heat. 

Similarly, transistors are used to switch or control electrical signals in a circuit board. During the life of a board, sometimes other parts of the board require more energy or charge.

This is where capacitors come into play, as they hold a charge within the board and release this power when it is needed elsewhere. 

When current flows through the inductor, the inductor also stores energy within the circuit board in the form of a magnetic field. They are often used to block signals within a circuit board, such as interference from other electronics or equipment.

Another important component of a circuit board is a diode, a device that allows current to flow in one direction but not the other, and can be used to stop current flowing through the board in the wrong direction, causing damage.

If you would like to learn more about how circuit boards work and what they are made of, please contact us for more information.

PCBQUCIK is a custom PCB board manufacturer. With fully automatic copper sinking production line, compression, AOI, flying probe test, fixed test frame. We can design PCB according to your cost and requirement, and issue project EQ within 24 hours. A factory that can provide customers with one-stop service, from PCB production, component procurement, component assembly. Our stability and reliability have earned the trust of our customers.